With ever-tightening global regulations to curb greenhouse gas emissions, electrification has become a vital directive for the automotive industry. Though electric vehicles (EVs) themselves might have no tailpipe emissions, battery production is shown to have considerable implications.

Highlights

  • Lithium, cobalt, manganese and graphite are the primary constituents of Li-ion batteries. 
  • Cobalt extraction in Democratic Republic of Congo linked to human rights violations.
  • Lithium mining found to be responsible for water, air and soil pollution.

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), electric cars accounted for 2.6 percent of global car sales and 1 percent of global car stock in 2019. Putting things in perspective, global sales of electric cars (including battery electric as well as plug-in hybrid passenger vehicles) stood at 2.1 million units last year, a…

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